# Calculation methods: here are the important aspects

Originality, reliability (the result of extensive testing and constant development

## Temperature rise calculation

Instead of calculating them with the usual formulas, the element is divided into small parts and for each part (node) the heat exchange balance is calculated.

The heat exchange coefficients by convection, in particular, are the result of long experimentation. The calculation of the overtemperatures of each node is obtained by successive approximations, from the resolution of a system of equations. In this way the calculation is precise even when only frontal or only lateral cooling channels are foreseen and when the winding is in contact with the core.

**Short circuit voltage**

To calculate the DC voltage, instead of using the classical formulas derived from cylindrical coils, we divide the coil into lateral and frontal parts, then we calculate the dispersion flow of each part, layer by layer.

The calculation is made using the real flow, so that the DC voltage will be calculated correctly even with coils of very different shapes from the standard.

## Core losses calculation

Real no-load losses are calculated starting from the theoretical losses provided by the manufacturer, for each degree of magnetic material and applying proven building factor values. In the customization phase, other types of magnetic sheet metal and building factors can be included in the calculation.